Posted on
01
Sep 2021

## Additional Voters – GMAT Quant Problem

Hey guys, today we’re going to look at a particularly challenging GMAT Quant problem that just about everyone resorts to an algebraic solution path on, but there’s a very elegant part solution path. When we take a look at this problem we observe immediately that the difficulty is that we have no baseline for the number of voters that we start with. That’s the confusing part here and this is one of the ways that the GMAT modulates difficulty; when they give us a problem without fixed numbers, and where we’re not free to run a scenario because there are add-on numbers that change the relative values.

Here they’re adding the 500 and the 600 which means there exist fixed values at the beginning, but we don’t know what they are. What we want to do here is remove ourselves a bit from the problem and let the ratios that they give us guide our way.

We start out with three parts Republicans, five parts Democrats. These eight parts constitute everything, but we don’t know how many voters are in each part – it could be one voter in each, or a hundred, or a thousand, and we can’t speculate yet. So, what we need to do is not worry about it, and this is where a lot of people get really uncomfortable. Let it go for a second, and notice that, after we add all the new voters, we end up with an extra part on the Republican side and the same number of parts on the Democrat side.

What does this mean? Well, the parts are obviously getting bigger from the before to the after. But because we have an overall equivalence between the number of parts we can actually reverse engineer the solution out of this.

###### Reverse Engineering the Solution

We’re adding 500 Democrats and we’re maintaining five parts from the before to the after. This means that each part is getting an extra 100 voters for the total of plus 500. On the Republican side, we’re adding 600 voters. We already know, from the Democratic side, that each part needs to increase by 100 to keep pace with all the other parts. So, 300 voters are used in the three republican parts, leaving 300 extra voters to constitute the entirety of the fourth part.

Now we know that each part after we add the voters equals 300 and therefore each part before we added the voters was 200. From there we get our answer choice. I forget what they were asking us at this point, and this is actually a really great moment because it’s very common on these complex problems to get so caught up, even if you’re doing it mentally, with a more conducive solution path, to forget what’s being asked. When you’re doing math on paper, which is something we really don’t recommend, it’s even easier to do so because you get so involved processing the numbers in front of you that you lose conceptual track of what the problem is about.

So, they’re asking for the difference between the Democratic and Republican voters after the voters are added. Now we know there’s one part difference and we know that after voters are added a part equals 300 voters so the answer choice is B, 300.

###### Something to Keep in Mind

This one is not easy to get your head around, but it’s easier than dealing with the mess of algebra that you’d otherwise have to do.
Review this one again. This is a GMAT Quant problem you may have to review several days in a row. It’s one where you might attain an understanding, and then when you revisit it four hours later or the next day, you lose it and you have to fight for it again. It’s in this process of dense contact and fighting that same fight over and over again that you will slowly internalize this way of looking at it, which is one that is unpracticed. The challenge in this problem isn’t that it’s so difficult. It’s that it utilizes solution pads and way of thinking that we weren’t taught in school and that is entirely unpracticed. So, much of what you see as less difficult on the GMAT is less difficult only because you’ve been practicing it in one form or another since you were eight years old. So, don’t worry if you have to review this again and I hope this was helpful.

Check out this link for another super challenging GMAT Quant problem.

Posted on
14
Apr 2021

## GMAT Percentage Problems

Hey guys, GMAT Percentage problem/s are commonplace on the GMAT and today we’re going to take a look at one that is straightforward but could very easily get you caught up with the math. In this problem, notice that there’s the word “approximately.” That always means there’s an Estimation Solution Path. We’ll take a look at that first but then we’re going to look at a Scenario Solution Path, which for many people is a lot more natural. In addition to seeing that word approximately you can see that there’s this massive spread within the answer choices. Once again pushing us towards an Estimation Solution Path.

#### Estimation Solution Path

So let’s dive in: The unemployment rate is dropping from 16% to 9% and your quick synthesis there should be: okay it’s being cut about in half or a little less than half. And monitoring that directionality is important. Additionally, the number of workers is increasing. So we have lower unemployment but a greater number of workers. So we have two things, two forces working against one another. If the number of workers were remaining equal then our answer would be about a 50% decrease or just under a 50% decrease, so like 45% or something like that. But because we’re increasing the number of workers, our decrease in unemployment is lower. That is we have more workers, so we have a larger number of unemployed so we’re not losing as many actual unemployed people and therefore our answer is B: 30% decrease.

#### Scenario Solution Path

If we want to take a look at this via Scenario, we can always throw up an easy number like 100. We begin with 100 workers and 16% are unemployed so 16 are unemployed. Our workers go from 100 to 120. 9% of 120 is 9 plus 0.9 plus 0.9 = 10.8% or 11%. What’s the percentage decrease from 16 to 11? Well it’s not 50, that’s too big. It’s not 15, that’s too small. It’s about 30 and the math will bear us out there.

So thanks for watching guys! Check out the links below for other GMAT percentage problem/s and we look forward to seeing you again real real soon.

Another GMAT percentage problem

Posted on
29
Mar 2021

## A Primer on Primes

By: Rich Zwelling (Apex GMAT Instructor)
Date: 30th March 2021

As I said in my previous post, GMAT Prime Numbers are my favorite topic. This is because not only are they inherently interesting mathematically but they show up in unexpected circumstances on GMAT problems, even when the term “prime” is not explicitly mentioned.

But before we get to that, I thought it would help to review a basic definition:

If you’ve gone through school, you’ve likely heard the definition of a prime as “any number that can be divided only by 1 and itself.” Or put differently, “any number that has only 1 and itself as factors.”  For example, 3 is a prime number, because 1 and 3 are the only numbers that are factors of 3.

However, there is something slightly problematic here. I always then ask my students: “Okay, well then, is 1 prime? 1 is divisible by only 1 and itself.” Many people are under the misconception that 1 is a prime number, but in truth 1 is not prime

There is a better way to think about prime number definitionally:

*A prime number is any number that has EXACTLY TWO FACTORS*

By that definition, 1 is not prime, as it has only one factor

But then, what is the smallest prime number? Prime numbers are also by definition always positive, so we need not worry about negative numbers. It’s tempting to then consider 3, but don’t overlook 2.

Even though 2 is even, it has exactly two factors, namely 1 and 2, and it is therefore prime. It is also the only even prime number. Take a moment to think critically about why that is before reading the next paragraph…

Any other even number must have more than two factors, because apart from 1 and the number itself, 2 must also be a factor. For example, the number 4 will have 1 and 4 as factors, of course, but it will also have 2, since it is even. No even number besides 2, therefore, will have exactly two factors.

Another way to read this, then, is that every prime number other than 2 is odd

You can see already how prime numbers feed into other number properties so readily, and we’ll talk much more about that going forward. But another question people often ask is about memorization: do I have to memorize a certain number of prime values?

It’s good to know up to a certain value. but unnecessary to go beyond that into conspicuously larger numbers, because the GMAT as a test is less interested in your ability to memorize large and weird primes and more interested in your reasoning skills and your ability to draw conclusions about novel problems on the fly. If you know the following, you should be set (with some optional values thrown in at the end):

2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, (41, 43)

Thankfully, you’ll notice the list is actually pretty manageable.

(And an interesting note that many people forget that 27 is actually not prime. But don’t beat yourself up if this happens to you: Terence Tao, one of the world’s leading mathematicians and an expert on prime numbers, actually slipped briefly on national television once and said 27 was prime before catching himself. And he’s one of the best in the world. So even the best of the best make these mistakes.)

Now, here’s an Official Guide problem that takes the basics of Prime Numbers and forces you to do a little reasoning. As usual, give it shot before reading the explanation:

The product of all the prime numbers less than 20 is closest to which of the following powers of 10 ?

A) 109
B) 108
C) 107
D) 106
E) 105

#### Explanation

For this one, you have a little hint going in, as we’ve provided you with the necessary list of primes you’ll use to find the product.

And the language given (“closest to”) is a huge hint that you can estimate:

2*3*5*7*11*13*17*19 ~= ??

Since powers of 10 are involved, let’s try to group the numbers to get 10s as much as possible. The following is just one of many ways you could do this, but the universal easiest place to start is the 2 and the 5, so let’s multiply those. We’ll mark numbers we’ve accounted for in red:

(2*5)*3*7*11*13*17*19 ~= ??

10*3*7*11*13*17*19 ~= ??

Next, we can look at the 19 and label it as roughly 20, or 2*10:

10*3*7*11*13*17*19 ~= ??

10*3*7*11*13*17*20 ~= ??

10*3*7*11*13*17*2*10 ~= ??

We could also take the 11 and estimate it as another 10:

10*3*7*11*13*17*2*10 ~= ??

10*3*7*10*13*17*2*10 ~= ??

At this point, we should be able to eyeball this. Remember, it’s estimation. We may not know 17*3 and 13*7 offhand. But we know that they’re both around or less than 100 or 102. And a look at the answer choices lets us know that each answer is a factor of 10 apart, so the range is huge. (In other words, estimation error is not likely to play a factor.)

So it’s not unreasonable in the context of this problem to label those remaining products as two values of 102:

10*3*7*10*13*17*2*10 ~= ??

10*(102)*10*(102)*2*10 ~= ??

And at this point, the 2 is negligible, since that won’t be enough to raise the entire number to a higher power of 10. What do we have left?

101*(102)*101*(102)*101 ~= 107

Next time, we’ll get into Prime Factorizations, which you can do with any positive integer.

Posted on
17
Mar 2021

## Sequence Problem on the GMAT

#### Key Information to Know About Sequences

Hey guys! When we see sequences on the GMAT whether in the problem solving or the data sufficiency section they have two important characteristics. One is how they work, the other is anchoring the sequence to a particular set of numbers. Let’s start by taking a look at the most basic sequence out there. Counting! The way counting works is that every time we go up a term in the sequence we add one and if we take number one as our first term then the term number and the value move in tandem. First term is 1. Second term is 2, 50th term is 50. We could also anchor it differently. Let’s say we wanted to say the first term is five, then the second term is six, third term is seven, fourth term is eight, so on and so forth.

Play around with this: do it with the even numbers or the odd numbers and try different anchor points. Sequences can seem more complicated than they are because we don’t think of them in this basic sort of way and because they’re expressed oftentimes with weird notation. So when we see some sequence with a little number below, it that’s called a Subscript. That tells you the number of term of the sequence that they’re talking about. So going back to our counting example, S1 the first term in the sequence equals 1. S2 equals 2, S sub 3 equals 3. If we were doing the even numbers starting at two S sub 1 equals 2, S sub 2 equals 4, S sub 3 equals 6, S sub 10 equals 20. So don’t get freaked out by the notation just because it looks like it comes out of some very crazy math book.

#### What We Need

The problem we’re going to look at today is asking us for the value of a specific term within a sequence and the what do we need comes in two parts. We need both how the sequence works and we need to know (not necessarily where it starts) but some anchor point to tell us what some term is relative to the sequence so we can figure out any other term above or below that. We’re going to say that again: we don’t need the beginning or ending term, just any term with a specific value that along with the rules allows us to get to any other place in the sequence.

#### Which Statement to Begin With

Generally, when we are looking for two pieces of information we should be attuned to looking for a (C) or an (E) answer choice but that’s not always the case. If we dive into the introduced information, we’ll start with number 2 and the reason is that it’s going to be easier to evaluate. At first glance it’s simpler and you always want to start out with the easier piece and work your way up. Number 2 gives us a term. It gives us the first term, but we don’t know how the sequence works therefore it’s insufficient. Number 1 gives us the 298th term and describes how the sequence works so we’re getting both pieces together in number 1.

Therefore (A) 1 alone is sufficient. Notice here that because we’re primed for (C) / (E) answer choice, looking for two pieces of information, the GMAT is betting that we think to ourselves hey I need the first term in this sequence and the 298th term doesn’t tell me anything. They’re looking for us to answer (C) that we need them both. But once you understand sequences you’ll never fall for it. Hope this helped guys, check out other sequence problems below and we’ll see you again soon.

If you enjoyed this GMAT sequences video, try your hand at this Ratio problem next.

Posted on
14
Jan 2021

## Averages Problem No.1 : Test Averages

Hey guys, today we’re going to take a look at the test averages problem. This is a very straightforward mathematically oriented average problem or at least it can be. But there are very strong graphic solution paths here and there’s also a really strong sort of intuitive running tally counting solution path here. We’re going to start out with the math though, just because that’s how a lot of people are familiar with this problem. Before we jump into the heavier duty quicker sort of stuff.

## Doing the Math

So to solve this problem we want to take an average. But one of the components of our average is missing. So we have four things with an average of 78, and a fifth unknown. That means we can assume that each of the first four exams were 78. So we’ve got 4 times 78 plus X over 5. The total number of exams is going to give us our average of 80. Then through algebra, algebraic manipulation we multiply the 5 over, we get 400 equals 4 times 78 plus x. The 4 times 78 is 312. We subtract that off the 4 and that brings you to 88. Answer choice E.

## Graphic Solution Path: Poker Chips

Let’s take a look at this a little differently. One of the ways I like looking at averages is imagining stacks of poker chips and you can have stacks of anything. I like poker chips because they fit together and you can make two stacks equal very easily so what we’re being told here is we have four stacks of 78 a fifth unknown stack but if we equalize them all that is if we take chips off of the unknown stack and distribute them all the stacks will be 80. That means that the fifth stack needs to be 80 and then it needs two poker chips for each of the other four stacks to bring those 78’s up. We can also envision this as just a rectangle our goal is 80 but we have 78, and our goal is five tests but we have four so we have 78 by four here. And then 80 by 5 here what’s missing is the full 80 and then 2 on each of four stacks of 48.

## Running Tally Method: Intuitive Approach

The most powerful way to handle this problem though is probably by doing a running tally. Don’t even worry about the visualization but rather notice that, I’ve got 47 8s each of those are too short so I’m two, four, six. eight points short on the last test. I need to get the 80 that I want plus those eight points that I’m short bringing us to 88. And anybody who’s sweated like A+, B+, A- or a C+, B- has done this math. So if you characterize it like that a lot of times it becomes much more intuitive and once again allows you to cultivate confidence for a deeper treatment and more complex averages problems and mean problems check out the snack shop problem, check out the company production problem and there’s a great ds problem that we do the trade show problem you’ll find links to all of them just below and I hope this helped.

Enjoyed this Averages Problem ? Try another type of GMAT problem to get familiar with all question types on the exam: Remainder Number Theory Problem.